Subsidies are payments from a government or an organization to another consumer, business, or institution to lower the cost of a product, service, or activity. The amount of the subsidy depends on the type of subsidy and the purpose.
For example, agricultural subsidies are aimed at encouraging a country's farmers to grow specific crops. The amount of the payment is determined by the size of the farm, the type of crops planted, and the price of the crops.
In the case of direct investments, governments will often offer incentives such as tax breaks or credit to attract businesses to their region. Subsidies are also provided to encourage research and development, or to fund certain social programs.
The amount of the subsidy is usually based on an assessment of the costs and benefits. Governments, for instance, evaluate the potential socio-economic benefits, like job creation or increased access to services, when determining how to calculate the subsidy.
In summary, subsidies are payments from an entity to another to encourage certain activities or to support existing organizations and activities. The amount and type of the payment depends on the purpose of the subsidy and can vary significantly.